Archival Records/Primary Sources
An archival record can be:
- A textual document like a letter, a report or meeting minutes
- A visual document like a photograph, map or architectural drawing
- An audio document like a tape recording of music or oral history interview
- A multimedia document like a home movie
- A digital document like an email
The important thing to remember about any kind of archival record is that it is a primary
source of historical information.
A primary source is a record created or collected by an individual, organization or institution to document a particular event, activity, idea or decision.
Some examples of primary sources include: letters and diaries; government, church, and business records; oral histories; photographs, motion pictures, and videos; maps and land records; and blueprints.
These archival records/primary sources provide unique opportunities for exploring and understanding history.
By examining the primary sources stored in any archives, one can begin to see why history attaches importance to specific dates, names and places. At the same time, you may find information related to these dates, names and places that you would not be able to find in any history textbook.
Current Master Degree programs in Archival Studies or concentrations
- Dalhousie - School of Information Management
- McGill - School of Information Studies
- Saskatchewan Polytechnic - Library Tech Program
- University of British Columbia (iSchool)
- University of Manitoba
- University of Toronto (Master of Information)
- Guidelines for the Development of a two-year curriculum for a Master of Archival Studies (1990)
- Guidelines for the Development of Post-Appointment and Continuing Education and Training Programmes (1991)
- ACA Education Programme and Plan
Is an introduction to the preparation of fonds- and series-level descriptions using the Rules for Archival Description.
by Jeff O'Brien
SCA Outreach Archivist
Enter Basic RAD (online version)
Archival Advisory Service
The Archival Advisory Service has been established as a central co-ordinating, consultative and advisory program able to provide a wide range of beneficial services to SCAA member archives. This service is intended to facilitate the development of co-operative inter-archival networks,enhance many facets of professional education and training, and serve as a focus for addressing the evolving concerns and priorities of the province's archival community.
516 Clarence Ave S
Saskatoon, SK S7H 2C9
Office: (306) 242-0796
Cell: (306) 220-2176
The Archives Advisor provides outreach services and is available for consultation to all member institutions on questions concerning archival practice and procedures, the Rules for Archival Description (RAD), making entries to the SAIN databases as well as providing guidance to SCAA grant applications and related topics.
The Archives Advisor is also responsible for disseminating educational material, thorough the"Ask an Archivist" page here, workshops and publications; and helps coordinates public awareness initiatives such as Archives Week.
"Ask an Archivist"
If you're looking for archival information, some of the following links might point you in the right direction:
Joining the SCAA, there are another twelve Archival Associations at the Provincial and Territorial level:
Alberta - Archives Society of Alberta (ASA)
British Columbia - Archives Association of British Columbia (AABC)
Manitoba - Association of Manitoba Archives (AMA)
New Brunswick - Council of Archives of New Brunswick (CANB)
Newfoundland and Labrador - Association of Newfoundland and Labrador Archives (ANLA)
North West Territories - North West Territories Archives Council (NWTAC)
Nova Scotia - Council of Nova Scotia Archives (CNSA)
Nunavut Territory - Archives Council of Nunavummi (ACN)
Ontario - Archives Association of Ontario (AAO)
Prince Edward Island - Archives Council of Prince Edward Island (ACPEI)
Yukon Territory - Yukon Council of Archives (YCA)
- The Directory of Archives in Saskatchewan has contact, holdings and other information for over 60 archives across Saskatchewan
- Our growing holdings databases (SAIN collections and photographs) may help identify collections and archives relevant to your research
- If in doubt, our Archives Advisor can try to put you in touch with an appropriate archives
At the national level, resources include:
- Archives Canada, a portal to collection-level descriptions, virtual exhibits and links to other provincial networks
- the Canadian Council of Archives' Directory of Archives and the Advisors' Toolkit
- Code of Best Practices in Fair Use The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) clear and easy-to-use statement of fair and reasonable approaches to fair use (copyright issues).
- CODE OF BEST PRACTICES IN FAIR USE FOR ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES Association of Research Libraries - copyright and fair-use issues
- Copyright Resources University Committee on Copyright, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- Defining Fair Use Association of Research Libraries spells out principles and best practices for making copyrighted materials as free as possible while avoiding lawsuits.
- Know Your Copy Rights Library Copyright Alliance (AALL, ALA, ARL, MLA, SLA) Council on Library and Information Resources
Digital Audio Projects:
Digitizing vinyl LPs - USB turntables
Helpful if turntables can play 33 1/3, 45 and 78 RPM
Digitizing reel-to-reel and cassette tapes
- Family Histories: Links to Genealogy Resources (Clayton McLain Memorial Museum)
Guidelines for Handling Mould Contaminated Material
by Fran Werry
THE BAD NEWS ABOUT MOULD
Mould is a serious problem for archives in Saskatchewan even though our province has extended periods of low humidity . There are numerous species of mould which can affect archival materials. Mould spores are everywhere. They exist in every room, on every object, and on every person entering an area. Good housekeeping and proper filtration will help control the number of these organisms, however it is impossible to create an area that is free mould. Active mould can enter the collections on incoming material or can develop during a breakdown of the a mechanical system. Natural disaster can bring on an infestation of mould and even minor problems with leakage along the floor line or drainpipes can cause a mould outbreak.
Mould is a non specific term for a type of fungus. Researchers have found over one hundred different species which can effect archival collections. Fungal growth is initiated by conidia, the asexual spore of the fungus which is produced in large numbers and disseminated through the air. The conidia can land anywhere and, if they are provided with suitable nutrients and a favourable environment, can grow at an alarming rate. Moulds excrete enzymes that allow them to digest organic materials and archival collections provide numerous substances which mould can consume. Some mould will consume cellulosic materials such as paper, while others consume elements found in the grounds and sizes used to coat papers. Leather provides nutrients for some species as do the pastes, adhesive, boards and binding threads used in the binding of books. Even dust on the surface of materials can support growth. Mould growth alters and weakens organic materials and may also contain coloured substances, such as melanin, which can stain affected materials.
It is imperative that safety precautions be taken when dealing with mould outbreaks in the collection. Mould can adversely affect human health. Individuals with allergies, asthma or other respiratory problems should not enter mould contaminated areas. Moulds are powerful sensitizers and and exposure to mould can lead to a debilitating problems even in individuals who are not prone to allergies. Some species produce toxigenic fungi will result in mycotoxicosis. Any part of the collection identified or even suspected to be contaminated with mould, should not be handled unless protective clothing is worn.
Once a major outbreak has occurred in the collections it is necessary to inactivate the mould. If environmental conditions are not conducive to mould growth the conidia will enter an exogenous (environmentally imposed) dormant period. Acceptable methods of inactivation are by air drying, desiccant drying, freeze drying and in some cases exposure to ultraviolet light. These procedures will not kill the mould spores but will place the spores in a dormant state. The length of time dormant conidia remain viable ( able to germinate) is dependent on the species as well as a number of different environmental variables. This dormancy is reversible under the right circumstances and can begin germinating even if they have been frozen or dried. The only dependable strategy is to control the environment so the conidia remain inactive, to have good housekeeping habits and to prevent active colonies from being brought into the collection.
HOW TO DISCOURAGE MOULD FROM DEVELOPING IN THE COLLECTION
Environmental conditions conducive to breaking the dormancy of mould spores and allowing germination to occur is influenced by factors such as; water vapour in the air, temperature, light, and air circulation. The most important of these is the amount of water vapour in the air, which is referred to as relative humidity or Rh. If the relative humidity is raised water molecules in the air hydrate the conidia and allow them to germinate. Relative humidity above 70% can easily support mould growth however some species can grow in a moderate RH. Ideally a heating/ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system with humidity controls should be installed. These systems are not easy or inexpensive to install however they will stabilize the environment and, because it solves the problems of humidity , temperature, and air circulation, are the most effective means of preserving the collection. If a an HVAC system cannot be installed, dehumidifiers can be purchased for the summer months to maintain an RH between 40% and 50%. The machine should be equipped with an automatic humidistat and safety features to guard against overflow. If possible, the dehumidifier should be hooked up to a drain or checked and emptied regularly. Desiccants such as silica gel can be used to absorb moisture in humid environments and are most effective for localized problems.
Temperatures between 70 and 75 degrees is optimal for fungal growth, however germination will occur between 32 and 97 degrees F. Freezing will kill active mould but will not affect dormant spores. High heat will kill mould but will adversely affect archival materials. The drying effect of circulated air will reduce fungal growth however moving air will spread the spores of active mould. When fans are used to improve air circulation, It is recommended that they be placed near outside walls close to ground level. Air can also be pulled through the building with the aid of attic vents and fans.
Fungal species prefer the darkness and ultra-violet radiation will inhibit mould growth however exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet light is damaging to paper materials and will cause serious fading of media. This exposure is not recommended for archival materials.
Other methods of discouraging mould should include good housekeeping, regular inspections and general flood-proofing for the building. Windows should be kept closed to prevent outside spores from entering the collection. Soil is a great source of fungi , therefore all house plants should be prohibited. Incoming material should be carefully inspected and placed in a quarantine area for several days. The collection should be inspected on a regular basis for mould and mildew and potentially hazardous areas should be monitored. Avoid storing collections in basements or along uninsulated outside walls. Ensure that outside gutters are drain away from walls and are checked regularly to avoid clogs. Make sure collections are not stored underneath water pipes.
HOW TO RESPOND TO MOULD CONTAMINATION IN THE COLLECTION
Before handling the contaminated items individuals should wear protective clothing which includes a half face HEPA filter mask-NIOSH No. TC - 21C, protective overalls, goggles and latex or vinyl gloves. These items are available at most safety supply stores.
- Isolate the affected material sealing them in air tight plastic bags or sheeting. If the item is valuable, seal it in a box with a container of silica gel. This will minimize the spread and protect other individuals from contact with the mould. If the material is damp or wet take it to an area with a low RH to dry.
- Determine what has caused the mould to grow. Check the humidity and temperature and look for sources of water. Also check the heating and air conditioning coils which are a prime area for fungus growth. Until the cause of the mould outbreak is discovered and corrected, mould will continue to grow.
- Attempt to lower the humidity and temperature and increase the circulation of air. Set up dehumidifiers or re-adjust the HVAC system. Set up fans and open windows if it is not raining.
- Wash all shelves and walls with a 2% bleach solution ( 1 part Javex to 50 parts water) and floors and mops with a 5% bleach solution (1 part Javex to 20 parts water). Any cloths and pails used in a clean up should be cleaned with a 5% chlorine bleach solution. Vacuums should be fitted with a certified HEPA filter.
- After each use, the respirator and goggles should be cleaned with alcohol swabs or detergent and water. The items should be rinsed and air dried and stored in a plastic bag. All equipment and protective clothing should remain in a designated "dirty" room. Hands should be washed with anti-bacterial soap.
- Once mould contaminated records have been identified and isolated it is recommended that mould samples are tested by a mycologist to identify the species present. Major blooms and those involving highly toxic species require outside professional help.
- If the contaminated material is to be treated it should be unsealed in a fume hood or in an area where there is an extraction source. Consult a conservator before treatment.
The Basic Principles of Preventive Conservation
by Fran Werry
Edited by Cameron Hart
I. Know the Collection
The natural aging process of paper will cause it to become weak and brittle. Ensure that paper items are handled carefully and are protected when storage or in use. Be sure to provide support oversized items when moving them, large pieces of coroplast are useful for this task.
When considering how to deal with paper items, consider the type of medium used, e.g., graphite, ink, charcoal, water-colour etc.
DO NOT encapsulate graphite or charcoal items as the static of the polyester will ruinaffect the item.
Acidic paper will contaminate de-acidified or non-acidic paper items; if these items must be stored together, place in enclosures to protect the items from acid migration. Use acid free paper to "buffer" to two items.
Books are designed to stand on a shelf with the support of other books of equal height and depth. They should be placed close enough to support each other but loose enough to be removed from the shelf. Oversize books may be laid flat; damaged or rare books should be placed in a box or wrapped in acid-free wrapping/tissue paper. Use a book cradle for displaying volumes,
Parchment and Vellum
Both parchment and vellum are made from de-haired, limed pelts which are dried at ordinary temperatures under tension. High humidity will cause the sheet to swell; low humidity will cause it to shrink and stiffen. Store flat if possible, however, folded or rolled parchment is best left as is.
Most photographic prints have two parts, an image layer and a support layer. The image layer differs in composition but can be divided into two categories: black-and-white and colour. Light damages all photographic prints but most unstable are the dyes used in colour photographs. Never touch the front of a print as skin oils can damage the image layer.
Photographic Negatives and Slides:
Negatives are composed of an image layer and a support layer and also react in a similar manner to exposure to light as a photographic print. The support layer is usually composed of a polyester, cellulose acetate or a cellulose nitrate film. Slides also have a support layer of film but the image layer is a positive image and, like colour prints, is formed from unstable dyes. Cellulose nitrate film gives off acidic fumes which contaminate other materials.
Nitrate film is also highly flammable and has been known to self-ignite under conditions of high temperature.
This includes a variety of carriers for recorded information such as video and audio cassettes, 8 track and reel to reel audio tapes and computer tapes, disks and diskettes. The surface of the tapes contains magnetic particles that store information which can be read by playback equipment. The surface layer is particularly susceptible to damage from skin oils.
Because these magnetic particles can be erased by a close proximity to a magnetic field. Keep away from magnetized objects as well as electrical equipment, fixtures and motors, transformers and high voltage lines.
The deterioration of archival materials is no more or less than an indication of the forces of nature doing their job. It is important to understand enough about the physical characteristics of materials in the collections to figure out what nature is up to and to try and delay the inevitable deterioration.
II. Be Aware of the Forces of Destruction
Light is measured in units of intensity called a lux. High intensity light can induce chemical reactions which cause deterioration of archival items such as fading of dyes and pigments, discolouring supports and structurally weakening them. Sunlight and fluorescent light are sources of ultraviolet light which is potentially capable of damage to collections.
Light also generates heat which in turn accelerates the rate at which materials age.
Light levels should be kept as low as possible and the length of exposure should be limited. The easiest way to do this is to ensure that the collection is covered or boxed. Avoid high intensities of any kind of light and reduce the levels of daylight using curtains and blinds. Fluorescent lights can be covered in filtering plastic sleeves to reduce UV levels. Turn out the lights when the collection is not in use.
Relative humidity (RH) is the term used to describe the amount of water vapour in the air at a specific temperature. It is expressed as a percentage of the total water vapour that the same air will hold at the same temperature. A high RH will encourage mould growth and foster destructive chemical reactions. High humidity also will cause structural deformation of paper and books.
A low RH will cause archival materials to become brittle and make them susceptible to cracking especially when handled. Small changes in RH will cause archival materials to expand and contract, which weakens physical bonds and can shorten the longevity of materials.
Relative humidity should be allowed to change gradually from one season to the other but should be kept between 45% and 55%. Avoid daily fluctuations or keep them as small as possible no more than + 3%. The use of air conditioners, humidifiers and dehumidifiers can even out RH levels in contained areas. Inexpensive hygrometers can be purchased to monitor relative humidity.
Changes in temperature will alter relative humidity correspondingly. Higher temperatures accelerate chemical reactions and cause materials to deteriorate at a faster rate. Low temperatures can cause condensation on the surface of materials. Rapid temperature changes cause internal stresses on materials.
- Maintain a constant temperature day and night
- Do not turn the heat off on weekends and holidays
- Rapid fluctuations are very harmful
- A lower temperature (18-20 C) is recommended for archival collections
- Temperatures above 25 C are not acceptable for archival material.
Gaseous and particulate contaminate can cause a great deal of damage to archival material. If the archives are located in an urban or industrial area, industrial gases and automobile exhaust should be a concern. Indoor pollutants are also harmful. Cleaning supplies, paints, untreated wood, adhesives, plastics, and paper products with a high lignin content all contain harmful gases. Particulate like grit, grime, smoke and dust are abrasive and acidic.
Indoor gaseous pollutants can be controlled by ensuring that all cleaning and paint supplies are stored well away from the collection. All wood should be sealed and any fresh paint should be cured before being placed in the area. Do not allow smoking or cooking near the collection and clean and dust the area regularly.
Pests and Mould
Archival collections are very attractive to insects and rodents and can provide the nutrients needed for mould to grow. Their presence in the collections is determined by environmental factors (high temperature and relative humidity) as well as the cleanliness and maintenance of the area.
Check collections on a routine basis. Isolate any new material that comes into the collection and inspect it thoroughly before placing it with the rest of the collection. Control the relative humidity (mould will form at 65% RH) and lower the temperature as much as possible. Do not permit eating or drinking in the area.
Identify all possible causes of disasters and plan what to do in an emergency.
Fire: Will damage the collection through heat, smoke and water as well as by burning the records. Make sure the archives has some form of fire detection and fire suppression equipment.
Floods or leaks: Will encourage the growth of mould (within 24 hours) and cause irreversible damage to archival material. Do not store archival materials under water pipes. Have the roof, eaves troughs, down spouts and drainage systems inspected and maintained regularly.
Theft and vandalism: I'll just leave this one to your imagination. Create an atmosphere that discourages theft and vandalism. Also keep in mind that the majority of insurance claims for fine art collections are the result of the objects having been dropped.
III. Protect the Collection
Place all archival material in some form of protective enclosure. House the material in an appropriate sized box and place it loosely enough that it can be removed easily but will not sag. Provide adequate shelf space for the collection. Remove or segregate acidic enclosures to prevent them from damaging other material.
The shelving area should have space for over sized or odd sized items. Metal shelves are preferable but wooden shelves are acceptable if coated with acrylic latex paint. The shelves should be secure and solidly braced. No items should be stored on the floor.
Papers and boards used for enclosures must be acid-free. Buffered products may be used for all archival materials except photographs. Plastics may be used if they are inert or chemically stable. Polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene and tri-acetate are acceptable. If you are in doubt about the components of a plastic, do not use it. All enclosures must permit the removal of the contents without risk of damage.
- Always have clean hands and do not use hand lotions before handling materials.
- Make a habit of wearing lint-free cotton gloves.
- Use both hands or support an item with a stiff paper when moving or carrying it.
- Use a trolley or have another person help to carry oversize or heavy objects.
- Never use pens near archival material.
- Always remove an object from a protective enclosure by pulling on the enclosure, not the object.
Finally, encourage the staff, volunteers and visitors to "Think Preservation".
[The 1997-1998 ACS project has been made possible by financial assistance from the federal government through the Canadian Council of Archives, and provincially through SCCO, Heritage Branch, the Saskatchewan Archive Board, the University of Saskatchewan Archives, the University of Regina Archives, the St. Thomas More College Archives, Oblates of Mary Immaculate Archives, Roman Catholic Diocese of Saskatoon Archives, and the Diefenbaker Canada Centre.]
PD Fund/Travel Subsidy
Through SaskCulture and the Saskatchewan Lotteries Trust Fund for Sport, Culture, and Recreation, the SCAA is able to offer financial support for members' travel to Council-sponsored workshops as well as other professional development opportunities. The guidelines and application form are available for download below. Completed applications should be sent to the SCAA office.
SCAA Office: Saskatchewan Council for Archives and Archivists, 202-1275 Broad St., Regina, SK S4R 1Y2
Tel: (306) 780-9414; Fax: (306) 585-1765;
- Annual General Meetings (AGM)
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- YouTube videos - The Truth is in There